The Indus Valley civilization, one of the oldest in the world and dating back at least 5,000 years, spread over much of what is presently Pakistan. During the second millennium B.C., remnants of this culture fused with the migrating Indo-Aryan peoples. The area underwent successive invasions in subsequent centuries from the Persians, Greeks, Scythians, Arabs (who brought Islam), Afghans, and Turks. The Mughal Empire flourished in the 16th and 17th centuries; the British came to dominate the region in the 18th century.

The separation in 1947 of British India into the Muslim state of Pakistan (with West and East sections) and largely Hindu India was never satisfactorily resolved, and India and Pakistan fought two wars – in 1947-48 and 1965 – over the disputed Kashmir territory. A third war between these countries in 1971 – in which India capitalized on Islamabad’s marginalization of Bengalis in Pakistani politics – resulted in East Pakistan becoming the separate nation of Bangladesh.

In response to Indian nuclear weapons testing, Pakistan conducted its own tests in 1998. India-Pakistan relations have been rocky since the November 2008 Mumbai attacks, but both countries are taking steps to put relations back on track. In February 2008, Pakistan held parliamentary elections and in September 2008, after the resignation of former President MUSHARRAF, elected Asif Ali ZARDARI to the presidency. A constitutional amendment adopted in April 2010 limited many of the president’s executive powers, effectively restoring the parliamentary system.

Following parliamentary elections in May 2013 in which Nawaz SHARIF’s Pakistan Muslim League-Nawaz party won a majority of seats, Pakistan witnessed its first peaceful transition from one democratically elected government to another.

Location: Southern Asia, bordering the Arabian Sea, between India on the east and Iran and Afghanistan on the west and China in the north

Geographic Coordinates: 30.00 N, 70.00 E

Map References: Asia

Area (Total): 796,095km²
Area (Land): 770,875km²
Area (Water): 25,220km²

Global Country Size Ranking: 36

Area (Comparative): Slightly more than five times the size of Georgia; slightly less than twice the size of California

Land Boundaries (Total): 7,257km

Border Countries (4): Afghanistan 2,670km, China 438km, India 3,190km, Iran 959km

Coastline: 1,046km

Maritime Claims (Territorial Sea): 12 nm
Maritime Claims (Contiguous Zone): 24 nm
Maritime Claims (Exclusive Economic Zone): 200 nm
Maritime Claims (Continental Shelf): 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin

Climate: Mostly hot, dry desert; temperate in northwest; arctic in north

Terrain: Flat Indus plain in east; mountains in north and northwest; Balochistan plateau in west

Elevation Extremes (Lowest Point): Indian Ocean 0m
Elevation Extremes (Highest Point): K2 (Mt. Godwin-Austen) 8,611m

Natural Resources: Arable land, extensive natural gas reserves, limited petroleum, poor quality coal, iron ore, copper, salt, limestone

Land Use (2011): Agricultural land: 35.2%; Arable land 27.6%; Permanent crops 1.1%; Permanent pasture 6.5%; Forest: 2.1%; Other: 62.7%

Irrigated land: 199,900km² (2008)

Total Renewable Water Resources: 246.8km³ (2011)

Total Freshwater Withdrawal (Domestic/Industrial/Agricultural): 183.5km³/yr (5%/1%/94%)

Freshwater Withdrawal Per Capita (Domestic/Industrial/Agricultural): 1,038 m³/year (2008)

Natural Hazards: Frequent earthquakes, occasionally severe especially in north and west; flooding along the Indus after heavy rains (July and August)

Environment – Current Issues: Water pollution from raw sewage, industrial wastes, and agricultural runoff; limited natural freshwater resources; most of the population does not have access to potable water; deforestation; soil erosion; desertification

Environment – International Agreements – Party To: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands

Environment – International Agreements – Signed, but not ratified: Marine Life Conservation

Geography – Note: Controls Khyber Pass and Bolan Pass, traditional invasion routes between Central Asia and the Indian Subcontinent

Noun: Pakistani(s)
Adjective: Pakistani

Ethnic Groups: Punjabi 44.68%, Pashtun (Pathan) 15.42%, Sindhi 14.1%, Sariaki 8.38%, Muhajirs 7.57%, Balochi 3.57%, Other 6.28%

Languages: Punjabi 48%, Sindhi 12%, Saraiki (a Punjabi variant) 10%, Pashto (alternate name, Pashtu) 8%, Urdu (official) 8%, Balochi 3%, Hindko 2%, Brahui 1%, English (official; lingua franca of Pakistani elite and most government ministries), Burushaski, and Other 8%

Religions: (2010) Muslim (official) 96.4% (Sunni 85-90%, Shia 10-15%), Other (includes Christian and Hindu) 3.6%

Population: (July 2015) 199,085,847
Country Comparison To The World: 7

Age Structure: (2015)
0-14 years: 32.65% (Male 33,396,847/Female 31,611,641)
15-24 years: 21.44% (Male 22,016,207/Female 20,673,562)
25-54 years: 36.28% (Male 37,526,930/Female 34,701,271)
55-64 years: 5.28% (Male 5,254,347/Female 5,253,526)
65 years and over: 4.35% (Male 4,036,727/Female 4,614,789)

Dependency Ratios: (2015)
Total Dependency Ratio: 65.3%
Youth Dependency Ratio: 57.9%
Elderly Dependency Ratio: 7.4%
Potential Support Ratio: 13.5%

Median Age: (2015)
Total: 23 years
Male: 22.9 years
Female: 23 years

Population Growth Rate: (2015) 1.46%
Country Comparison To The World: 82

Birth Rate: (2015) 22.58 births/1,000 population
Country Comparison To The World: 72

Death Rate: (2015) 6.49 deaths/1,000 population
Country Comparison To The World: 149

Net Migration Rate: (2015) -1.54 migrant(s)/1,000 population
Country Comparison To The World: 157

Urbanization: (2015)
Urban Population: 38.8% of total population
Rate Of Urbanization: (2010 – 2015) 2.81% annual rate of change

Major Urban Areas (Population): (2015)
Karachi 16.618 million; Lahore 8.741 million; Faisalabad 3.567 million; Rawalpindi 2.506 million; Multan 1.921 million; ISLAMABAD (capital) 1.365 million

Sex Ratio: (2015)
At Birth: 1.05 Male(s)/Female
0-14 Years: 1.06 Male(s)/Female
15-24 Years: 1.07 Male(s)/Female
25-54 Years: 1.08 Male(s)/Female
55-64 Years: 1 Male(s)/Female
65 Years and over: 0.88 Male(s)/Female
Total Population: 1.06 Male(s)/Female

Maternal Mortality Rate: (2015) 178 deaths/100,000 live births
Country Comparison To The World: 44

Infant Mortality Rate: (2015)
Total: 55.67 deaths/1,000 live births
Male: 58.84 deaths/1,000 live births
Female: 52.35 deaths/1,000 live births
Country Comparison To The World: 26

Life Expectancy At Birth: (2015)
Total Population: 67.39 years
Male: 65.47 years
Female: 69.4 years
Country Comparison To The World: 167

Total Fertility Rate: (2015) 2.75 Children Born/Woman
Country Comparison To The World: 67

Contraceptive Prevalence Rate: (2012/13) 35.4%

Health Expenditures: (2013) 2.8% of GDP
Country Comparison To The World: 183

Physicians Density: (2010) 0.83 physicians/1,000 population

Hospital Bed Density: (2012) 0.6 beds/1,000 population

Drinking Water Source: (2015)
Urban: 93.9% of population
Rural: 89.9% of population
Total: 91.4% of population
Urban: 6.1% of population
Rural: 10.1% of population
Total: 8.6% of population

Sanitation Facility Access: (2015)
Urban: 83.1% of population
Rural: 51.1% of population
Total: 63.5% of population
Urban: 16.9% of population
Rural: 48.9% of population
Total: 36.5% of population

HIV/AIDS – Adult Prevalence Rate: (2014) 0.09%
Country Comparison To The World: 113

HIV/AIDS – People Living with HIV/AIDS: (2014) 93,900
Country Comparison To The World: 53

HIV/AIDS – Deaths: (2014) 2,800
Country Comparison To The World: 47

Major Infectious Diseases: (2013)
Degree of risk: high
Food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A and E, and typhoid fever
Vectorborne diseases: dengue fever and malaria
Animal contact disease: rabies
Note: highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza has been identified in this country; it poses a negligible risk with extremely rare Cases possible among citizens who have close contact with birds

Obesity – Adult Prevalence Rate: (2014) 4.8%
Country Comparison To The World: 153

Children under the age of 5 years underweight: 31.6% (2013)
Country Comparison To The World: 11

Education Expenditures: 2.5% of GDP (2013)
Country Comparison To The World: 164

Literacy (15 and over can read and write): (2015)
Total population: 57.9%
Male: 69.5%
Female: 45.8%

School Life Expectancy (primary to tertiary education): (2013)
Total: 8 years
Male: 8 years
Female: 7 years

Unemployment (Youth Ages: 15-24): (2008)
Total: 7.7%
Male: 7%
Female: 10.5%

Children under the age of 5 years underweight: 31.6% (2013)
Country Comparison To The World: 115

Country Name:
Conventional Long Form: Islamic Republic of Pakistan
Conventional Short Form: Pakistan
Local Long Form: Jamhuryat Islami Pakistan
Local Short Form: Pakistan
Former: West Pakistan

Government Type: Federal Republic

Capital: Islamabad
Geographic Coordinates: 33 41 N, 73 03 E
Time Difference: UTC+5

Administrative Divisions:
4 provinces, 1 territory*, and 1 capital territory**; Balochistan, Federally Administered Tribal Areas*, Islamabad Capital Territory**, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (formerly North-West Frontier Province), Punjab, Sindh

(Note: The Pakistani-administered portion of the disputed Jammu and Kashmir region consists of 2 administrative entities: Azad Kashmir and Gilgit-Baltistan)

Independence: 14th August 1947 (from British India)

National Holiday: Pakistan Day (also referred to as Pakistan Resolution Day or Republic Day), 23 March (1940)
Note – Commemorates both the adoption of the Lahore Resolution by the All-India Muslim League during its 22-24 March 1940 session, which called for the creation of independent Muslim states, and the adoption of the first constitution of Pakistan on 23 March 1956 during the transition to the Islamic Republic of Pakistan

Constitution: Several previous; latest endorsed 12 April 1973, passed 19 April 1973, entered into force 14 August 1973 (suspended and restored several times); amended many times, last in 2015 (2015)

Legal System:
Common law system with Islamic law influence
International law organization participation:
Accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; non-party state to the ICCt

Citizenship by birth: Yes
Citizenship by descent: At least one parent must be a citizen of Pakistan
Dual Citizenship Recognized: Yes, but limited to select countries
Residency Requirement for Naturalization: 4 out of the previous 7 years and including the 12 months preceding application
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal; note – there are joint electorates and reserved parliamentary seats for women and non-Muslims

Executive Branch:
Chief of State: President Mamnoon HUSSAIN (since 9 September 2013)
Head of Government: Prime Minister Mohammad Nawaz SHARIF (since 5 June 2013)
Cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president upon the advice of the prime minister
Elections/Appointments: president indirectly elected by the Electoral College consisting of members of the Senate, National Assembly, and provincial assemblies for a 5-year term (eligible for reelection); election last held on 9 September 2013 (next to be held in 2018); prime minister selected by the National Assembly
Election Results: Mamnoon HUSSAIN elected president; Mamnoon HUSSAIN (PML-N) 432 votes, Wajihuddin AHMED (PTI) 77 votes

Legislative Branch:
Description: bicameral Parliament or Majlis-e-Shoora consists of the Senate (104 seats; members indirectly elected by the 4 provincial assemblies and the territories’ representatives by proportional representation vote; members serve 6-year terms with one-half of the membership renewed every 3 years) and the National Assembly (342 seats; 272 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote and 70 members – 60 women and 10 non-Muslims – directly elected by proportional representation vote; all members serve 5-year terms)
Elections: Senate – last held on 5 March 2015 (next to be held in March 2018); National Assembly – last held on 11 May 2013 (next to be held by 2018)
Election Results: Senate – percent of vote by party – NA; seats by party – PPPP 27, PML-N 26, MQM 8, ANP 6, PTI 7, JUI-F 5, PML-Q 4, BNP-A 2, NP 1, PML-F 1, other 7, independent 10; National Assembly – percent of votes by party – NA; seats by party as of June 2013 – PML-N 126, PPPP 31, PTI 28, MQM 18, JUI-F 10, PML-F 5, other 22, independent 25, unfilled seats 7; 60 seats reserved for women, 10 seats reserved for non-Muslims; seats by party as of August 2015 (includes women and non-Muslim seats) – PML-N 188, PPPP 46, PTI 33, MQM 24, JUI-F 13, PML-F 5, other 24, independent 9

Judicial Branch:
Highest Court(s): Supreme Court of Pakistan (consists of the chief justice and 16 judges)
Judge Selection and Term of Office: justices nominated by an 8-member parliamentary committee upon the recommendation of the Judicial Commission (a 9-member body of judges and other judicial professionals), and appointed by the president of Pakistan; justices can serve until age 65
Subordinate Courts: High Courts; Federal Shariat Court; provincial and district civil and criminal courts; specialized courts for issues such as taxation, banking, customs, etc.

Political Parties And Leaders:
• Awami National Party or ANP – Mian Iftikhar HUSSAIN
• Balochistan National Party-Awami or BNP-A – Mir Israr Ullah ZEHRI
• Balochistan National Party-Mengal or BNP-M – Sardar Akhtar Jan MENGAL
• Jamaat-i Islami or JI – Sirajul HAQ
• Jamiat-i Ulema-i Islam Fazl-ur Rehman or JUI-F – Fazlur REHMAN
• Muttahida Qaumi Movement or MQM – Altaf HUSSAIN
• Pakhtun khwa Milli Awami Party or PkMAP – Mahmood Khan ACHAKZAI
• Pakistan Muslim League-Functional or PML-F – Pir PAGARO or Syed Shah Mardan SHAH-II
• Pakistan Muslim League-Nawaz or PML-N – Nawaz SHARIF
• Pakistan Peoples Party Parliamentarians or PPPP – Bilawal Bhutto ZARDARI and Asif Ali ZARDARI
• Pakistan Tehrik-e Insaaf or PTI – Imran KHAN
• Quami Watan Party or QWP – Aftab Ahmed Khan SHERPAO

(Note: political alliances in Pakistan shift frequently)

Political Pressure Groups and Leaders (Others): Military; Ulema (clergy); Landowners; Industrialists; Small Merchants

International Organization Participation:

Flag Sescription:
Green with a vertical white band (symbolizing the role of religious minorities) on the hoist side; a large white crescent and star are centered in the green field; the crescent, star, and color green are traditional symbols of Islam

National Symbol(s):
Star and crescent, jasmine; national colors: green, white

National Anthem:
Name: “Qaumi Tarana” (National Anthem)
Lyrics/Music: Abu-Al-Asar Hafeez JULLANDHURI/Ahmed Ghulamali CHAGLA
(Note:) Adopted 1954; also known as “Pak sarzamin shad bad” (Blessed Be the Sacred Land)

Decades of internal political disputes and low levels of foreign investment have led to slow growth and underdevelopment in Pakistan. Agriculture accounts for more than one-fourth of output and two-fifths of employment. Textiles account for most of Pakistan’s export earnings, and Pakistan’s failure to diversify its exports has left the country vulnerable to shifts in world demand. Official unemployment was 6.9% in 2014, but this fails to capture the true picture, because much of the economy is informal and underemployment remains high.

Pakistan’s human development continues to lag behind most of the region. As a result of political and macroeconomic instability, the Pakistani rupee has depreciated more than 40% since 2007. The government agreed to an International Monetary Fund Standby Arrangement in November 2008 to prevent a balance of payments crisis, but the IMF ended the Arrangement early because of Pakistan’s failure to implement required reforms. The economy has stabilized, but it continues to underperform and foreign investment has not returned to levels seen during the mid-2000s, due to investor concerns related to governance, electricity shortages, and a slow-down in the global economy. Remittances from overseas workers, averaging £1 billion a month, remain a bright spot for Pakistan.

After a small current account surplus in fiscal year 2011 (July 2010/June 2011), Pakistan’s current account turned to a deficit where it remained through 2014, spurred by higher prices for imported oil and lower prices for exported cotton. In September 2013, after facing balance of payments concerns, Pakistan entered into a three-year, £5 billion IMF Extended Fund Facility. The Sharif government has since made modest progress implementing fiscal and energy reforms, and in December 2014 the IMF described Pakistan’s progress as “broadly on track.” Pakistan remains stuck in a low-income, low-growth trap, with growth averaging about 3.5% per year from 2008 to 2014. Pakistan must address long standing issues related to government revenues and the electricity and natural gas sectors in order to spur the amount of economic growth that will be necessary to employ its growing and rapidly urbanizing population, more than half of which is under 22. Other long term challenges include expanding investment in education and healthcare, adapting to the effects of climate change and natural disasters, and reducing dependence on foreign donors.

GDP (Purchasing Power Parity):
2014 – £619 billion
2013 – £595.1 billion
2012 – £574.2 billion
Country Comparison To The World: 27

GDP (Official Exchange Rate):
2014 – £172.8 billion

GDP – Real Growth Rate:
2014 – 4%
2013 – 3.7%
2012 – 3.8%
Country Comparison To The World: 76

GDP – Per Capita (PPP):
2014 – $4,700
2013 – $4,600
2012 – $4,400
Note: Data is in 2014 US dollars
Country Comparison To The World: 172

Gross National Saving:
2014 – 13.7% of GDP
2013 – 13.9% of GDP
2012 – 13% of GDP
Country Comparison To The World: 129

GDP – Composition, By End Use (2014):
Household Consumption: 80.7%
Government Consumption: 10.8%
Investment In Fixed Capital: 13.4%
Investment In Inventories: 1.6%
Exports Of Goods And Services: 12.3%
Imports Of Goods And Services: -18.7%

GDP – Composition, By Sector Of Origin (2014):
Agriculture: 25%
Industry: 20.9%
Services: 54.1%

Agriculture – Products: Cotton, Wheat, Rice, Sugarcane, Fruits, Vegetables; Milk, Beef, Mutton, Eggs

Industries: Textiles And Apparel, Food Processing, Pharmaceuticals, Construction Materials, Paper Products, Fertilizer, Shrimp

Industrial Production Growth Rate:
2014 – 4.5%
Country Comparison To The World: 60

Labor Force:
2014 – 61.55 million
(Note: Extensive export of labor, mostly to the Middle East, and use of child labor)
Country Comparison To The World: 10

Labor Force – By Occupation (2013):
Agriculture: 44%
Industry: 22%
Services: 33%

Unemployment Rate:
2014 – 6.8%
2013 – 6.2%
(Note: Substantial underemployment exists)
Country Comparison To The World: 74

Population Below Poverty Line (2011): 12.4%
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Lowest 10%: 4.2%
Highest 10%: 25.6%

Distribution Of Family Income – Gini Index:
29.6 (2011)
30 (2008)
Country Comparison To The World: 123

Budget (2014):
Revenues: £25.85 billion
Expenditures: £35.72 billion

Taxes And Other Revenues (2014):
15% of GDP
Country Comparison To The World: 192

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-) (2014):
-5.7% of GDP
Country Comparison To The World: 182

Public Debt:
64.3% of GDP (2014)
64.8% of GDP (2013)
Country Comparison To The World: 49

Fiscal Year: 1st July – 30th June

Inflation Rate (Consumer Prices):
2014 – 8.6%
2013 – 7.4%
Country Comparison To The World: 206

Central Bank Discount Rate:
9.5% (18 December 2014)
10% (31 December 2013)
Country Comparison To The World: 25

Commercial Bank Prime Lending Rate:
9.7% (8 December 2014)
9.98% (31 December 2013)
Country Comparison To The World: 85

Stock Of Narrow Money:
£55.78 billion (31 December 2014)
£47.03 billion (31 December 2013)
Country Comparison To The World: 40

Stock Of Broad Money:
£70.99 billion (31 December 2014)
£61 billion (31 December 2013)
Country Comparison To The World: 55

Stock Of Domestic Credit:
£82.96 billion (31 December 2014)
£72.95 billion (31 December 2013)
Country Comparison To The World: 49

Market Value Of Publicly Traded Shares:
£30.58 billion (31 December 2012)
£22.93 billion (31 December 2011)
£26.72 billion (31 December 2010)
Country Comparison To The World: 54

Current Account Balance:
2014 – (-£2.19) billion
2013 – (-£1.747) billion
Country Comparison To The World: 158

2014 – £17.36 billion
2013 – £17.58 billion
Country Comparison To The World: 71

Exports – Commodities:
Textiles (Garments, Bed Linen, Cotton Cloth, Yarn), Rice, Leather Goods, Sporting Goods, Chemicals, Manufactures, Carpets And Rugs

Exports – Partners:
US 12.4%, China 9.3%, UAE 8.6%, Afghanistan 8.3%, UK 5.2%, Germany 4.9% (2014)

2014 – £29.8 billion
2013 – £28.85 billion
Country Comparison To The World: 58

Imports – Commodities:
Petroleum, Petroleum Products, Machinery, Plastics, Transportation Equipment, Edible Oils, Paper And Paperboard, Iron And Steel, Tea

Imports – Partners:
China 24.5%, Saudi Arabia 11.1%, UAE 11%, Kuwait 5.7%, India 4% (2014)

Reserves Of Foreign Exchange And Gold:
£12.11 billion (31 December 2015)
£10 billion (31 December 2014)
Country Comparison To The World: 62

Debt – External:
£40.73 billion (31 December 2014)
£39.53 billion (31 December 2013)
Country Comparison To The World: 60

Stock Of Direct Foreign Investment – At Home:
£20.56 billion (31 December 2014)
£19.32 billion (31 December 2013)
Country Comparison To The World: 67

Stock Of Direct Foreign Investment – Abroad:
£1.293 billion (31 December 2014)
£1.212 billion (31 December 2013)
Country Comparison To The World: 79

Electricity – Production: 92.86 billion kWh (2012)
Country Comparison To The World: 35

Electricity – Consumption: 80.3 billion kWh (2013)
Country Comparison To The World: 37

Electricity – Exports: 0 kWh (2013)
Country Comparison To The World: 183

Electricity – Imports: 375 million kWh (2012)
Country Comparison To The World: 80

Electricity – Installed Generating Capacity: 23.66 million kW (2013)
Country Comparison To The World: 36

Electricity – From Fossil Fuels: 68% Of Total Installed Capacity (2013)
Country Comparison To The World: 117

Electricity – From Nuclear Fuels: 3.3% Of Total Installed Capacity (2013)
Country Comparison To The World: 26

Electricity – From Hydroelectric Plants: 28.9% Of Total Installed Capacity (2013)
Country Comparison To The World: 79

Electricity – From Other Renewable Sources: 0.2% Of Total Installed Capacity (2013)
Country Comparison To The World: 115

Crude Oil – Production: 93,630 bbl/day (2014)
Country Comparison To The World: 46

Crude Oil – Exports: 0 bbl/day (2012)
Country Comparison To The World: 175

Crude Oil – Imports: 148,000 bbl/day (2012)
Country Comparison To The World: 38

Crude Oil – Proved Reserves: 371 million bbl (January 2015)
Country Comparison To The World: 55

Refined Petroleum Products – Production: 227,800 bbl/day (2012)
Country Comparison To The World: 49

Refined Petroleum Products – Consumption: 434,000 bbl/day (2013)
Country Comparison To The World: 36

Refined Petroleum Products – Exports: 15,940 bbl/day (2012)
Country Comparison To The World: 77

Refined Petroleum Products – Imports: 210,200 bbl/day (2012)
Country Comparison To The World: 30

Natural Gas – Production: 39.97 billion m³ (2013)
Country Comparison To The World: 22

Natural Gas – Consumption: 39.97 billion m³ (2013)
Country Comparison To The World: 23

Natural Gas – Exports: 0m³ (2013)
Country Comparison To The World: 162

Natural Gas – Imports: 0m³ (2013)
Country Comparison To The World: 120

Natural Gas – Proved Reserves: 754.6 billion m³ (January 2014)
Country Comparison To The World: 29

Carbon Dioxide Emissions From Consumption Of Energy: 146.9 million Mt (2012)
Country Comparison To The World: 34

Telephones – Fixed Lines: (2014)
Total Subscriptions: 4.9 million
Subscriptions per 100 Inhabitants: 2
Country Comparison To The World: 31

Telephones – Mobile Cellular:(2014)
Total: 135.8 million
Subscriptions per 100 Inhabitants: 69
Country Comparison To The World: 11

Telephone System:
General Assessment: The telecommunications infrastructure is improving dramatically with foreign and domestic investments in fixed-line and mobile-cellular networks; system consists of microwave radio relay, coaxial cable, fiber-optic cable, cellular, and satellite networks;

Domestic: Mobile-cellular subscribership has skyrocketed, exceeding 110 million by the end of 2011, up from only about 300,000 in 2000; more than 90 percent of Pakistanis live within areas that have cell phone coverage, and more than half of all Pakistanis have access to a cell phone; fiber systems are being constructed throughout the country to aid in network growth; fixed line availability has risen only marginally over the same period, and there are still difficulties getting fixed-line service to rural areas

International: Country code – 92; landing point for the SEA-ME-WE-3 and SEA-ME-WE-4 submarine cable systems that provide links to Asia, the Middle East, and Europe; satellite earth stations – 3 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 2 Indian Ocean); 3 operational international gateway exchanges (1 at Karachi and 2 at Islamabad); microwave radio relay to neighboring countries (2011)

Broadcast Media:
Media is government regulated; 1 dominant state-owned TV broadcaster, Pakistan Television Corporation (PTV), operates a network consisting of 5 channels; private TV broadcasters are permitted; to date 69 foreign satellite channels are operational; the state-owned radio network operates more than 40 stations; nearly 100 commercially licensed privately owned radio stations provide programming mostly limited to music and talk shows (2007)

Radio Broadcast Stations: AM 31, FM 68, shortwave NA (2006)

Television Broadcast Stations: 20 (5 state-run channels and 15 privately-owned satellite channels) (2006)

Internet Country Code: .pk

Internet Users:
Total: 21.3 million
Percent of Population: 10.8% (2014)

Airports (2013): 151
Country Comparison To The World: 37

Airports – With Paved Runways (2013):
Total: 108
2,438m to 3,047m: 15
1,524m to 2,437m: 20
914m to 1,523m: 43
Under 914m: 10

Airports – With Unpaved Runways (2013):
Total: 43
2,438m to 3,047m: 1
1,524m to 2,437m: 9
914m to 1,523m: 9
Under 914m: 24

Heliports (2013): 23

Pipelines (2013):
Gas: 12,646km
Oil: 2,576km
Refined Products: 1,087km

Total: 7,789km
Broad Gauge: 7,477km 1.676-m Gauge (293km Electrified)
Narrow Gauge: 312km 1.000-m Gauge (2014)
Country Comparison To The World: 27

Total: 262,256km
Paved: 189,218km (includes 708km of expressways)
Unpaved: 73,038km (2010)
Country Comparison To The World: 20

Merchant Marine:
Total: 11
By Type: bulk carrier (5), cargo (3), petroleum tanker (3)
Registered In Other Countries: 11 (Comoros 5, Marshall Islands 1, Moldova 1, Panama 3, Saint Kitts and Nevis 1) (2010)
Country Comparison To The World: 111

Ports And Terminals:
Major Seaports: Karachi, Port Muhammad Bin Qasim
Container Port (Teus): Karachi (1,545,434)
Lng Terminal (import): Port Qasim

Military Branches: Pakistan Army (includes National Guard), Pakistan Navy (includes Maritime Security Agency), Pakistan Air Force (Pakistan Fiza’ya) (2015)

Military service age and obligation: 16-23 years of age for voluntary military service; soldiers cannot be deployed for combat until age 18; the Pakistani Air Force and Pakistani Navy have inducted their first female pilots and sailors; the Pakistan Air Force recruits aviation technicians at age 15; service obligation (Navy) 10-18 years; retirement required after 18-30 years service or age 40-52 (2012).

Manpower available for military service: (2010)
Males Aged 16-49: 48,453,305
Females Aged 16-49: 44,898,096

Manpower fit for military service: (2010)
Males Aged 16-49: 37,945,440
Females Aged 16-49: 37,381,549

Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually: (2010)
Male: 2,237,723
Female: 2,104,906

Military Expenditures:
2013 – 3.5% of GDP
2012 – 3.5% of GDP
2011 – 3.2% of GDP
Country Comparison To The World: 21

Disputes – International:

Various talks and confidence-building measures cautiously have begun to defuse tensions over Kashmir, particularly since the October 2005 earthquake in the region; Kashmir nevertheless remains the site of the world’s largest and most militarized territorial dispute with portions under the de facto administration of China (Aksai Chin), India (Jammu and Kashmir), and Pakistan (Azad Kashmir and Northern Areas); UN Military Observer Group in India and Pakistan has maintained a small group of peacekeepers since 1949; India does not recognize Pakistan’s ceding historic Kashmir lands to China in 1964; India and Pakistan have maintained their 2004 cease-fire in Kashmir and initiated discussions on defusing the armed standoff in the Siachen glacier region; Pakistan protests India’s fencing the highly militarized Line of Control and construction of the Baglihar Dam on the Chenab River in Jammu and Kashmir, which is part of the larger dispute on water sharing of the Indus River and its tributaries; to defuse tensions and prepare for discussions on a maritime boundary, India and Pakistan seek technical resolution of the disputed boundary in Sir Creek estuary at the mouth of the Rann of Kutch in the Arabian Sea; Pakistani maps continue to show the Junagadh claim in India’s Gujarat State; since 2002, with UN assistance, Pakistan has repatriated 3.8 million Afghan refugees, leaving about 2.6 million; Pakistan has sent troops across and built fences along some remote tribal areas of its treaty-defined Durand Line border with Afghanistan, which serve as bases for foreign insurgents and other illegal activities; Afghan, Coalition, and Pakistan military meet periodically to clarify the alignment of the boundary on the ground and on maps

Refugees and internally displaced persons:

Refugees (country of origin): 3 million (1.6 million registered, 1.4 million undocumented) (Afghanistan) (2015)
IDPs: more than 1.8 million (primarily those who remain displaced by counter-terrorism and counter-insurgency operations and violent conflict between armed non-state groups in the Federally Administered Tribal Areas and Khyber-Paktunkwa Province; more than 1 million displaced in Northern Waziristan in 2014; individuals also have been displaced by repeated monsoon floods) (2015)

Trafficking In Persons:

Current Situation: Pakistan is a source, transit, and destination country for men, women, and children subjected to forced labor and sex trafficking; the country’s deteriorating security situation and weak economy have dominated the government’s resources and attention; the largest human trafficking problem is bonded labor in agriculture, brickmaking and, to a lesser extent, mining and carpet-making; children are bought, sold, rented, and placed in forced begging rings, domestic service, small shops, brick kilns, or prostitution; militant groups also force children to spy, fight, or die as suicide bombers, kidnapping the children or getting them from poor parents through sale or coercion; women and girls are forced into prostitution or marriages; Pakistani adults migrate to the Gulf States and African and European states for low-skilled jobs and sometimes become victims of forced labor, debt bondage, or prostitution; foreign adults and children from Afghanistan, Iran, Uzbekistan, Tanzania, and Bangladesh may be subject to forced labor, and foreign women may be sex trafficked in Pakistan, with refugees and minorities being most vulnerable.

Tier Rating: Tier 2 Watch List – Pakistan does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking; however, it is making significant efforts to do so; officials continue to focus on trafficking as a transnational problem and lack the political will to address the issue unless pressured by the media and activists; the government does not prohibit and penalize all forms of trafficking and has not submitted a draft anti-trafficking bill to the National Assembly or Senate; authorities have yet to convict any offenders under the Bonded Labor System Act since it came into force in 1992; trafficking and smuggling continue to be conflated, with trafficking victims often prosecuted for prostitution or other crimes committed as a result of trafficking; Pakistan does not have systematic methods for identifying trafficking victims among vulnerable population and referring them to protective services (2014)

Illicit Drugs:

Significant transit area for Afghan drugs, including heroin, opium, morphine, and hashish, bound for Iran, Western markets, the Gulf States, Africa, and Asia; financial crimes related to drug trafficking, insurgency, corruption, and smuggling remain problems; opium poppy cultivation estimated to be 2,300 hectares in 2007 with 600 of those hectares eradicated; federal and provincial authorities continue to conduct anti-poppy campaigns that utilizes forced eradication, fines, and arrests